Repro negative portrait of Raden Kartini Maya (photo 1890s)Born 21 April 1879Dutch flag Jepara, Central Java, Dutch East IndiesDied 17 September 1904 (age 25)Dutch flag Rembang, Central Java, Dutch East IndiesRaden Ayu Kartini's nicknameKnown for the Emancipation of womenReligion of IslamPair R.M.A.A. Singgih Djojo Adhiningrat
Adjeng Raden Kartini (born in Jepara, Central Java, 21 April 1879 - died in Apex, Central Java, 17 September 1904 at age 25 years) or actually more accurately called Raden Ayu Kartini  was a prominent Javanese and Indonesian National Heroes . Kartini is known as a pioneer of the rise of indigenous women.Table of contents
Kartini Day 6.1
6.2 The name of the street in the Netherlands
7 Photo Gallery
9 External links
[Edit] BiographyKartini's father, R.M. Sosroningrat.
Adjeng Raden Kartini is one of the gentry or nobility of Java classes, the daughter of Duke Ario Sosroningrat Raden Mas, Jepara district. She is the daughter of first wife, but not the major's wife. His mother named M.A. Ngasirah, daughter of Nyai Siti Aminah and Kyai Haji Haji Madirono, a religion teacher at Telukawur, Jepara. From his father's side, the genealogy can be traced to Hamengkubuwana Kartini VI.
Kartini's father in the beginning was a district officer in Mayong. Regulation of the colonial time it requires a regent beristerikan a nobleman. Because M.A. Ngasirah not a nobleman of high , then her father married again with Raden Adjeng Woerjan (Moerjam), a direct descendant of King of Madura. After the marriage, Kartini's father then became regent in Jepara, replacing the real father of RA Woerjan, R.A.A. Tjitrowikromo.
Kartini was the fifth child of 11 siblings and stepfather. Of all siblings, Kartini was the eldest daughter. His grandfather, Prince Ario Tjondronegoro IV, was appointed regent at the age of 25 years. Kartini's older brother, Sosrokartono, is a smart in the field of language. Until the age of 12 years, Kartini allowed to attend school in the ELS (Europese Lagere School). Here, among others, Kartini learn the Dutch language. But after age 12 years, he should stay at home because it could be secluded.
Because Kartini could speak Dutch, then at home he began to study himself and to write letters to friends correspondence originating from the Netherlands. One is Rosa Abendanon a lot of support. From books, newspapers, and magazines of Europe, Kartini interested in the advancement of women think of Europe. Arising desire to promote indigenous women, because he saw that indigenous women are at a low social status.Kartini and her husband, R.M.A.A. Singgih Djojo Adhiningrat (1903).
Kartini read a lot of Semarang newspaper De Locomotief Brooshooft care for Pieter, he also received leestrommel (package circulated magazine subscriptions to the bookstore). Among them there is a magazine of culture and science is quite heavy, there is also a Dutch women's magazine De Hollandsche Lelie. Kartini was then several times sent his writings and published in De Hollandsche Lelie. From his letters seem Kartini read everything with great interest, while taking notes. Kartini sometimes mention one essay or quote a few sentences. His attention was not solely about the emancipation of women, but also general social problems. Kartini saw women struggle to gain freedom, autonomy and legal equality as part of a broader movement. Among the books read Kartini before the age of 20, there is the title of Max Havelaar and Love Letters works of Multatuli, who in November 1901 was read two times. Then De Stille Kraacht (Hidden Power) by Louis Coperus. Then the work of Van Eeden high quality, the work of Augusta de Witt is mediocre, roman-feminist work of de-Jong Goekoop Mrs. Van Beek and an anti-war novel written by Berta von Suttner, Die Waffen Nieder (Put Weapons). Everything is in Dutch.
By her parents, Kartini was told to marry a regent Apex, S. Duke Ario Djojo Adhiningrat Singgih, who had already had three wives. Kartini were married on November 12, 1903. Her husband understood Kartini Kartini and desires are given the freedom and support to establish girls' schools in the east gate of Apex district office complex, or in a building that is now used as the Scout House.Kartini School (Kartinischool), 1918.
The first and last child at the same time, R.M. Soesalit, born on September 13, 1904. A few days later, 17 September 1904, Kartini died at the age of 25 years. Kartini was buried in the village of Feathers, Fur District, Apex.
Thanks to his perseverance Kartini, then founded the School for Women by Kartini Foundation in Semarang in 1912, and later in Surabaya, Yogyakarta, Malang, Madison, Cirebon and other areas. The school's name is "Kartini School". Kartini Foundation was founded by the family Van Deventer, a member of the Ethical Policy.[Edit] Letters
After Kartini died, Mr. J.H. Abendanon collect and record the letters that Kartini had sent to her friends in Europe. Abendanon then served as Minister of Culture, Religion, and Crafts Dutch East Indies. The book is titled Door Duisternis tot Licht literally "From Darkness Towards Light '. Kartini's book of collected letters were published in 1911. This book was printed five times, and at last there is an additional mold Kartini's letters.
In 1922, Hall Book published in Malay with a title that translates to Light After Dark: Boeah Mind, which is a translation of the Four Brothers. Then in 1938, out After Dark Light version of a poet Armijn Pane New Poet. Armijn divided the book into five chapters the discussion to indicate a change in thinking all the time Kartini correspondence. This version was printed as many as eleven times. Kartini's letters in the English language has also been translated by Agnes L. Symmers. In addition, Kartini's letters also been translated into Javanese and Sundanese.
Publication of Kartini's letters, a native woman, very interesting Dutch society, and Kartini's ideas began to change society's view of women native Dutch in Java. Kartini's ideas contained in his letters is also the inspiration for the national awakening figures Indonesia, among others, WR Soepratman who created a song called Mother We Kartini.[Edit] Thoughts
Kartini's letters written his thoughts about the social conditions at the time, especially about the conditions of indigenous women. Most of his letters contain complaints and lawsuits related to culture, especially in Java, which is seen as a barrier to the advancement of women. She wanted women to have freedom of studying and learning. Kartini was writing ideas and ideals, as it is written: Zelf-ontwikkeling and Zelf-onderricht, Zelf-vertrouwen and Zelf-werkzaamheid and also Solidariteit. All of that on the basis of Religieusiteit, Wijsheid en Schoonheid (ie Godhead, Wisdom and Beauty), coupled with humanitarianism (humanity) and Nationalism (unpatriotic).
Kartini's letters also contain hopes to obtain help from the outside. In the introduction to Estelle "Stella" Zeehandelaar, Kartini revealed a desire to be like the youth of Europe. He described the suffering of women due to the confines of traditional Javanese, ie can not be free to sit in school, must be secluded, married to a man unknown, and must be willing to co-wife.
Other critical views expressed in her letters Kartini is a criticism of religion. He questioned why the Bible should be pronounced and memorized without required to be understood. He expressed the view that the world will be more peaceful if there is no religion which is often the reason for man to quarrel, separate, and hurt each other. "... Religion must guard us than sin, but how many people do sins in the name of religion ..." Kartini questioned about religion is used as a justification for men to practice polygamy. For Kartini, the suffering of women had complete Java whose world was limited to the walls of houses.
Kartini's letters reveal much about the constraints that must be faced as women aspire to be more advanced Java. Despite having a father who was quite advanced for having to send their daughters even if only until the age of 12 years, it still closed the door to get there. Kartini loved her father, but it turns against his father's love is also ultimately become major obstacles in realizing their dreams. The father in the letter also expressed so loved the Kartini. He stated finally allowed Kartini to study to become a teacher in Batavia, although previously not allowed Kartini to continue their studies to the Netherlands or to enter medical school in Batavia.
Kartini's desire to continue his studies, especially to Europe, was revealed in his letters. Some friends of his pen and tried to realize the desire to support the Kartini. When finally Kartini's desire to cancel it almost materialized, revealed the disappointment of the friends of his pen. Intentions and plans to study in the Netherlands was finally turned to Batavia only after advised by Mrs Abendanon that's best for Kartini and her sister Rukmini.
In mid 1903, when aged about 24 years, the intention to continue his studies to become a teacher in Batavia were dashed. In a letter to Mrs. Abendanon, Kartini had no intention of revealing again because he was getting married. "... Short and short-course, that I no longer want to use that opportunity, because I was going to marry ..." Yet when it was the ministry of teaching the Netherlands has opened the door of opportunity for Kartini and Rukmini to study in Batavia.
Just before the wedding, there is a change in a matter of custom Java Kartini assessment. He became more tolerant. He considers marriage will bring a distinct advantage in realizing the desire to establish a school for native women at the time. In her letters, Kartini mentioned that not only supports her husband's desire to develop Jepara carving and a school for native girls, but also mentioned that Kartini could write a book.
These changes imply that Kartini thought he had better take off his ego and become a man that gave priority to transcendence, that when Kartini's almost a dream to go to school in Batavia, he prefers to sacrifice to follow the principles of patriarchy that had been opposed, that is married to the Duke of Apex.
Light After Dark
Version of the book covers Armijn Pane.
In 1922, the Four Brothers, Door Duisternis Tot Licht presented in Malay under the title After Dark Light; Boeah Mind. The book is published by the Central Library. Armijn Pane, one of the pioneer poets New Poet, translator noted as one of Kartini's letters to the Light After Dark. He was also touted as the Four Brothers.
In 1938, Light After Dark book published back in a different format with the books of translations from the Door Duisternis Tot Licht. Armijn Pane translated books are printed as many as eleven times. In addition, Kartini's letters also been translated into Javanese and Sundanese. Armijn Pane presents Kartini's letters in a format different from previous books. He divided the collection of these letters in the discussion into five chapters. The division is he doing to demonstrate the existence of stages or changes in attitude and thinking Kartini for correspondence. In the new version of the book, Armijn Pane also shrink the number of Kartini's letters. Kartini there are only 87 letters in "After Dark Light". The cause is not publishing the entire letter is in reference books Duisternis Door Tot Licht, is that there are similarities in some letters. Another reason is to keep the storyline to be like a romance. According Armijn Pane, Kartini's letters can be read as a romance of women's lives. It's also become one of the explanations why these letters he divided into five chapters discussion.
Kartini's letters, reflections on and for his Nation
Kartini's letters also translated by Sulastin Sutrisno. At first Sulastin translate Door Duisternis Tot Licht at the University of Leiden, the Netherlands, while he continued his studies in literature in 1972. One of the lecturers at Leiden Sulastin asked to translate a book of collected letters that Kartini. The goal is for the teacher to master the Dutch language Sulastin quite perfect. Then, in 1979, a book containing translations Sulastin Sutrisno full version Duisternis Door Tot Licht was published.
A book of collected letters Sutrisno Sulastin version published under the title Letters Kartini, reflections on and for his Nation. According Sulastin, the title should be according to the Dutch translation is: "The letters of Kartini, reflections on and for the Nation of Java". Sulastin rate, although the written Java, which didamba by Kartini is real progress of the entire nation of Indonesia.
Translated books instead want to present a complete Sulastin Kartini's letters that exist on the Door Duisternis Tot Licht. In addition to letters published in Kartini, reflections on and for his Nation, translation Sulastin Sutrisno also used in the book Kartini, Letters to Mrs RM-Mandri Abendanon and her husband.
Letters from Kartini, An Indonesian Feminist 1900-1904
Another book containing translations of Kartini's letters is Letters from Kartini, An Indonesian Feminist 1900-1904. Joost Cote translators. He does not simply translate the letters that exist in the Door Duisternis Tot Licht Abendanon version. Joost Cote also translate all the original letter to Mrs. Kartini Abendanon-Mandri recent findings. In the book Joost Cote translation, can be found the letters that are categorized as sensitive and not in the Door Duisternis Tot Licht Abendanon version. According to Joost Cote, Kartini and barring all struggle on him it was time to uncover.
Letters from Kartini's book, An Indonesian Feminist 1900-1904 contains 108 Kartini's letters to Mrs. Rosa Manuela Abendanon-Mandri and her husband JH Abendanon. These include: 46 letter made Rukmini, Kardinah, Kartinah, and Soematrie.
Call Me Kartini Only
Only the cover of Call Me Kartini, compiled by Pramoedya Ananta Tur.
In addition to a collection of letters, reading is more focused on the idea Kartini also published. One is Call Me Kartini Only works of Pramoedya Ananta Tur. Kartini's book Call Me Only visible is the result of collecting data from various sources by Pramoedya's.
Kartini's Letters to Mrs RM-Mandri Abendanon and her husband
End of 1987, Sulastin Sutrisno gave a new picture book about Kartini Kartini through letters to Mrs. RM-Mandri Abendanon and her husband. Previous picture was formed more than a collection of letters written to Abendanon, published in the Door Duisternis Tot Licht.
Kartini emancipation presented as a highly advanced fighter in the way of thinking than the Javanese women of his time. In a letter dated October 27, 1902, cited that Kartini wrote to Mrs Abendanon that he has initiated abstinence from meat, even since a few years before the letter, which indicates that Kartini was a vegetarian.  In that collection, Kartini's letters always cut the beginning and end. In fact, it shows the affection Kartini to Abendanon. Many other things are raised again by Sulastin Sutrisno.
I Want ... Feminism and Nationalism. Kartini's letters to Stella Zeehandelaar 1899-1903
A book of letters to Stella Zeehandelaar the period 1899-1903 was published to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the death. Its contents show another face of Kartini. Collection of Kartini's letters were collected Dr Joost Cote, translated under the title I Want to ... Feminism and Nationalism. Kartini's letters to Stella Zeehandelaar 1899-1903.
"I Want to ..." is the motto of Kartini. Piece of expression it represents a figure which has never been seen and used as the subject of conversation. Kartini talked about many things: social, cultural, religious, and even corruption.
[Edit] ControversyKartini Day celebration in 1953.
There are circles who doubted the truth of Kartini's letters. There are allegations J.H. Abendanon, Minister of Culture, Religion, and Crafts at the time of, Kartini's letters. These suspicions arose because Kartini's book was published during the Dutch colonial government to run an ethical politics in the Netherlands Indies, and Abendanon including an interest in ethical and political support. Until now, even most of the original manuscript of the letter was known to exist. According to deceased Sulastin Sutrisno, trace ancestry JH Abendanon was difficult to trace the Dutch Government.
Determination of date of birth of Kartini as the big day is also somewhat debatable. Parties who are not so agree, suggested that not only celebrate Kartini Day, but at the same time celebrate the Mother's Day on 22 December. The reason they are not playing favorites with the heroes of other Indonesian women, because there is another heroine is no less intense with Kartini like Cut Nyak Dien, Martha Christina Tiahahu, Dewi Sartika and so they lain.Menurut, the Kartini's struggle only in Jepara and Apex alone, Kartini also never bear arms against the invaders. His pro-polygamy is also contrary to the feminist view of the meaning of the emancipation of women. And various other reasons. Party pros say that Kartini's not just a figure of the woman who raised the degree of emancipation of women Indonesia alone, but is a national figure, that is, with the ideas of reform, he has fought for the interests of his people. Surrounding the way he thought was a national struggle.[Edit] Warning[Edit] Kartini DayTomb R.A. Kartini in Feather, Apex.
President Sukarno issued Presidential Decree No.108 of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1964, dated May 2, 1964, which sets Kartini as well as establish a National Hero Kartini's birthday, April 21, to be observed every year as the big day that became known as Kartini Day.[Edit] The name of the street in the Netherlands
Utrecht: Utrecht Road In R.A. Kartini or Kartinistraat is one of the main road, the shape of 'U' whose size is larger than the roads that use a name other struggle leaders like Augusto Sandino, Steve Biko, Che Guevara, Agostinho Neto.
Venlo: In South Holland Venlo, R.A. Kartinistraat shaped 'O' in the region Hagerhof, in the vicinity there are street names heroine Anne Frank and Mathilde Wibaut.
Amsterdam: The Amsterdam region Zuidoost or better known as the Bijlmer, road Raden Kartini Adjeng complete written. All around are the names of women from around the world who have contributed in history: Rosa Luxemburg, Nilda Pinto, Isabella Richaards.
Haarlem: In Haarlem the road adjacent to the road Kartini Mohammed Hatta, Sutan Sjahrir and straight through to the road Chris Soumokil second President of the Republic of South Moluccas.
[Edit] Image GallerySearch Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kartini
Portrait R.A. Kartini is signed.
Portrait studio R.A. Kartini small with parents and siblings. (Photo 1890s).
Cabinet photograph signed Kartini and her sister. Left-right: Kartini, Kardinah, Roekmini.
^, Raden Ayu is the title for the noble woman who was married to a man of noble descent second to the eighth generation of a Javanese king who ever reigned, while use of the title of RA (Raden Maya) only applies when not married.
^ Interview with Kathryn Robinson: Secularization of Family Law in Indonesia, Harvard Asia Quarterly, accessed 21 April 2010
^ Prasetya, L.A. "Who's Thinking of RA Kartini Vegetarian" - Compass Online Wednesday, April 21, 2010]
[Edit] External linksSearch Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:Kartini
(Indonesia) Kartini's Letters, Admiration on I Never Read, Compass
(Indonesia) Fighting the Advancement of Women, tokohindonesia.com
(Indonesia) Maya Raden (RA) Kartini, ibukitakartini.com
(Indonesia) Seeing the figure of the New Kartini, Compass
(Indonesia) The spirit of Kartini and Ethical Policy, People's Mind
(Indonesia) Osmose Culture, Kartini and Literary Creativity
(The Netherlands) kartini.info
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